Introduction – The Wine Saints of the Christian Church

There are thousands of Christian saints recognised by the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian churches. These are generally identified as the patron saints of different things, from lost things (St Christopher) to allegedly running the snakes out of Ireland (St Patrick) and military battle (St George) to romance (St Valentine). Here we examine the saints who became known as being patrons of wine, wine-makers, viticulture and the grape harvest. Some, such as St Vincent and St Martin are reasonable well-known as wine saints, but others such as St Tryphon and St Bibiana are far more obscure.

The Cult of the Saints

A Stained Glass Portrait of Saints

A Stained Glass Portrait of Saints

The emergence of hundreds of different saints during the late antique and early medieval periods must be viewed within the context of the promotion of the early Christian church. The church authorities in the fourth and fifth centuries were more than aware that they had an uphill task confronting them to get the majority of the adherents of the old Roman, Greek, Egyptian and Germanic religions, or Pagans as they termed them, to adopt Christianity. In an effort to do so, they began to incorporate aspects of these older religions into Christianity in order to make the new religion relatable and attractive.

One well-known aspect of this was in the creation of Christian holidays and religious festivals which effectively mimicked the Pagan religious calendar. Christmas, or the Mass of Christ, was fixed as occurring on the 25th of December, a date which closely correlated with the Saturnalia, or festival of the god Saturn, one of the most important religious festivals in the Roman calendar. In this way those who converted to Christianity would face minimal disruption to their lives. They would still have a religious celebration in late December, but it would be to celebrate Jesus’s birth rather than Saturn.[1]

Something similar happened with the development of the cult of the saints. In Pagan times every town and city tended to have its own local cult in which it worshipped a particular god to an unusual extent. For instance, port towns and cities often worshipped Neptune or Poseidon, the Roman and Greek gods of the sea, as they wanted to be safe while fishing or travelling. Farming communities might worship Demeter or Ceres, the Greek and Roman goddesses of the harvest. In doing so, they prayed to this god for a bounteous harvest.[2]

The cult of the saints soon replaced these local gods and goddesses. The saints, who in the early days were usually martyred Christians, were associated with different spheres of activity and people prayed to a specific saint or made offerings to them in order to encourage a certain result. As such, by medieval times, people at sea might pray to St Christopher, the patron saint of lost things, those marching to war might pray to St George, the patron saint of battle, while vintners and wine retailers might pray to certain saints who had become associated with the grape harvest and wine production.

The World of the Early Saints

Typically in the early days of the Christian Church in order to become a saint one had to meet a fairly gruesome end. It is different today, when Christians can be beatified if they are deemed to have lived a particularly holy or charitable life. Back in the fifth and sixth centuries when one was being considered for sainthood by the early Church authorities, they had to have effectively been a martyr and died under some straitened circumstances.

Woman in Black at Altar of Saint-Filled Churc

Woman in Black at Altar of Saint-Filled Church

There was no shortage of individuals who allegedly fell into this category. While Christianity had been adopted by the Emperor Constantine as the state religion of the Roman Empire in 313 AD, there was a period prior to this when Christians had faced state persecution. This was not as extensive as some late Church writers tried to contend. The evidence suggests that for much of the first two centuries of their movement (one or two anomalous incidents under the Emperor Nero and in the eastern provinces aside) the Roman authorities regarded Christians as excessively superstitious and religious, but there were almost no sustained efforts to persecute them.

That changed upon the accession of the Emperor Decius in 249 AD. By the middle of the third century the Christian movement had expanded to become a major part of the religious landscape of the Roman Empire, particularly so amongst the poor of society and the enslaved. Decius was the first emperor to conclude that the growth of the Christian church needed to be stopped and began the first state-run persecution of Christians across the empire. This continued throughout the reigns of his many successors in the second half of the third century, notably Diocletian who reformed the empire and ruled it between 284 AD and 305 AD.[3]

As these campaigns of state-sponsored persecution of Christians and suppression of their church raged, the number of Christian clerics and leaders who were killed and martyred increased. It was in this manner that a great many of the early Christian saints came to prominence, being people (men usually) who were killed by the Roman authorities as a result of their beliefs. Therefore, many of the patron saints of wine in medieval times were figures who were martyred during the latter centuries of Roman imperial history.[4]

St Tryphon of Campsada

St Tryphon has the distinction of being the oldest wine saint in history. A native of Campsada in what was then Phrygia in modern-day western Turkey, he acquired fame as a Christian healer in Anatolia and north into the Balkans around Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania in the 230s and 240s AD. He is known as one of the Holy Unmercenary, early Christian saints who did not accept any payment or gifts for their work.

Tryphon was able to operate largely unhindered for many years, but when the first major state-persecution of Christians was initiated under Decius in 249 AD he quickly fell fowl of it. Tryphon was arrested and allegedly tortured before being beheaded with a sword, though not before he converted a local Roman magistrate. The date of his death is believed to have been the 14th of February 250 AD, so in the western church he has to contend with the popularity of St Valentine when his saint’s day comes round.

St Tryphon is revered as a patron saint of wine today owing to belief in a miracle which he performed in which he fended off a plague of locusts from the vineyards of grape farmers in the Balkans. His position as a patron saint of viticulturists was recognised by the Greek and Eastern Orthodox Church, in which he is typically presented with a vine and scythe in his hands. Belief in his role as a wine saint remains strong in Bulgaria and Serbia today, where farmers still visit their vineyards on St Tryphon’s Day to prune the vines and sprinkle wine on them.[5]

St  Lawrence of Rome

One of the most famous wine saints of them all was killed less than a decade after Tryphon under brutal circumstances as well. St Lawrence of Rome fell victim to the Christian persecution initiated under the Emperor Valerian, who ruled the empire from 253 AD until he was captured by the Parthian Empire at the Battle of Edessa around the border zone between Turkey and Iraq today. Later Christian writers took great pleasure in describing how Valerian, one of the foremost persecutors of Christians in the third century, was subsequently used as a mounting stool by Shapur I of Parthia when getting onto his horse and was purportedly killed by being forced to drink molten gold.

Before those events, however, Valerian had been responsible for the death of St Lawrence. A native of Valencia in Hispania, Lawrence had moved to Rome as a young man in the mid-240s AD where he became one of the seven Christian deacons of the city. Lawrence became associated with wine and all things culinary owing to his gruesome end. When he was killed by the Roman authorities in 258 AD he is believed to have been tortured over a gridiron. Legend has it that during the course of this he roared at his captors that he was already cooked on one side and to turn him over.[6]

This story, which is surely make-belief, is the general reason why Lawrence became associated with cooking, cooks, food production and of course wine. His feast day is celebrated on the 10th of August every year, the date he is believed to have to been killed in Rome in 258 AD. Fortuitously, this date also corresponds exactly with the traditional beginning of the grape harvest in France and so St Lawrence became a major wine saint there in medieval times.

St Vincent of Saragossa

St Lawrence’s martyrdom occurred shortly before another major wine saint was born a thousand kilometres to the west in the city of Saragossa or Zaragoza in northern Spain. St Vincent was ordained as a deacon in the city and spent much of his life working as the aide of Bishop Valerius of Saragossa who suffered from a speech impediment. In the first years of the fourth century they fell victim to the Great Persecution which the Emperor Diocletian launched empire-wide in 303 AD in a final effort to stymie the spread of Christianity. Vincent was martyred as a result in the Spanish city in 304 AD, like Lawrence allegedly after being tortured on a gridiron.

Vincent wasn’t associated with winemaking or viticulture in any significant way during his lifetime, though a spurious story emerged in medieval times that his status as a wine saint was owing to him having been crushed in a wine press by his captors in 304 AD. Instead his position as a patron saint of viticulture in the medieval period is owing to the fact that his name sounds like vin-sang in French, meaning ‘wine-blood’. On top of this the basilica which Childebert I, King of the Franks, ordered built to honour St Vincent and house his relics outside Paris in the mid-sixth century, the Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, had its own vineyards and winery for centuries and this solidified the perception of St Vincent as a wine saint.[7]

St Vincent’s position as a wine saint is widely acknowledged today in the naming of several wineries around the world after him and vintages. He is also one of the few Christian saints after whom a grape varietal is named, the St Vincent grape which emerged as an accidental cross pollination of grape seeds in the American Midwest in the early 1970s having been named for the Spanish saint.

St Urban of Langres

Doubtlessly one of the most significant wine saints, though a comparatively little known one, is St Urban of Langres. Urban was consecrated as Bishop of Langres in north-eastern France in 374 AD. Although Christianity had been established as the state religion of Rome over half a century before his entry into this position, he nevertheless faced a challenging environment in Langres, as this bishopric lay near the Roman frontier and was being infiltrated throughout the fourth century by Germanic and Asiatic tribespeople such as the Franks, Alans, Burgundians and Gauls, most of who were still Pagans.

Urban’s perception as a patron saint of wine arises from this political situation. Not long after he became bishop of Langres the region was overrun and the local Germanic warlord began making life difficult for Roman officials and the heads of the church. Urban hid from his would-be oppressors in a vineyard. During this period of convalescence he converted many of the local viticulturists and in subsequent years became keenly associated with the wine-makers of north-eastern France.

In the decades that followed his death around 390 AD Urban came to be recognised as a saintly figure, while also becoming a patron saint of wine-makers and viticulturists. In medieval times he was keenly believed in by wine-producers in the Burgundy region and other wine-makers in Champagne and other districts, while coopers and glass-makers, all professions which were associated with viticulture also prayed to him as a local saint. His feast day is typically celebrated on the 2nd of April, but on the 23rd of January in Langres itself.[8]

St Martin of Tours

Surely the most famous wine saint of them all in St Martin of Tours. Martin the Merciful was the Bishop of Tour in central France in the late fourth century, having been consecrated as such in 371, three years before Urban became bishop of Langres to the north-east. Unlike many early Christian saints he was not martyred, but was given saintly status owing to his defence of the Priscillianists, a sect of strict Christian ascetics of the fourth century who philosophy foreshadowed the development of strict monasticism in Western Europe, as well as his care for the poor, having once famously cut his own cloak in half to give one part of it to a beggar during cold winter weather.

Martin was not associated to any great extent with viticulture in his own life time or for at least a century after his death, however in the sixth century Christian hagiographers began transplanting a Pagan Greek myth concerning the discover of wine pruning by a Greek writer called Aristaeus onto Martin’s life. It was also further claimed that in the middle of the sixth century a vineyard miraculously burst forth from the ground where Martin had died. Thus was born the patron saint of viticulture. As we will see below, Martin became the wine saint per excellence in medieval Europe.[9]

St Morand of Cluny

As we head much further into the Middle Ages, the men and women who were beatified tended not to have been martyrs as they rarely faced significant dangers in Europe anymore, unless trying to convert the heathen Wends and Slavs of northern and eastern Europe. As such, many of those who were declared to be saints in the High Middle Ages were individuals who were deemed to have performed miracles during their lifetime.

One of these who became a wine saint was St Morand of Cluny and Alsace. Morand hailed from a noble German family. After undertaking the pilgrimage to Compostela in Spain in emulation of St James he became a monk at the famed Abbey of Cluny in eastern France, the most powerful religious house in Europe during the High Middle Ages (1000 AD – 1300 AD). There he headed to lower Alsace around the turn of the millennium to establish his own monastery at Altkirch under the patronage of Count Frederick Pferz of Alsace.

Morand became associated with many miracles and following his death on the 3rd of June 1115 he was perceived as a particularly holy figure and was duly beatified. His association with viticulture and perception as a wine saint is owing to a story in which Morand apparently tried to emulate Jesus’s Lenten fast by subsisting on nothing more than a bunch of grapes for 40 days and nights.[10]

Saints Bibiana and Monica

Although the majority of wine saints are male, there are some female saints that are associated with viticulture and wine production. One such is St Bibiana. This Christian martyr of the mid-fourth century was unfortunate enough to fall fowl of the authorities in Rome during the reign of Julian the Apostate, a Roman emperor who briefly headed the empire between 361 AD and 363 AD and who is famed for being a Pagan Neoplatonist, one who tried to turn back the tide of Christian conversion.

Bibiana was one of the victims of Julian’s efforts, being handed over to a wicked woman named Rufina in Rome who variously tried to make her work as a prostitute and to seduce her into acts of homosexuality. When she refused, Bibiana was made to drink molten lead, before being beaten to death. When she died the hallowed ground on which she passed was believed to have sprouted magical herbs which could subsequently be consumed to alleviate the deleterious effects of a hard night’s drinking.[11]

Thus, Bibiana is more the patron saint of hangovers than of wine, but her miracle herbs certainly wouldn’t hurt wine sales if they really existed. She was not the only female saint who became associated with wine in a manner like this. St Monica, the mother of the great St Augustine of Hippo, one of the true intellectuals of early church history, is typically identified as descending into closet alcoholism before her decision to convert to Christianity and be baptised saved her from drinking too much wine alone in the basement of her family home.[12]

Patron Saints of Brewing and Winemaking in Medieval Europe

These saints were widely worshipped by viticulturists, wine makers, wine merchants and even random members of rural communities whose economies were based on viticulture throughout the Middle Ages. For instance, on the particular saint’s days one might find farmers making offerings to St Urban or St Vincent in their vineyards or saying a prayer in their local church.

The worship of St Martin in this way was probably the most ubiquitous, with viticultural communities in places like eastern France in the Burgundy region, the Douro region of northern Portugal and wine-growing parts of countries like Slovakia, Bohemia and Hungary all honouring the saint to a considerable extent. Indeed in regions where wine is particular important like Burgundy St Martin’s Day, falling on the 11th of November shortly after the grape harvest has come to an end, was celebrated as a major religious festival in medieval times, with village communities coming together to eat roast goose and drink plenty of wine. This reflects the season nature of medieval labour. The year’s work was done and now it was time to settle in for a cold winter and wait for the spring growth.[13]

A communion participant

A communion participant

Of course all of this started to decline during the early modern period. First the Protestant Reformation came along and generations of Protestant religious reformers condemned the cult of the saints as Popish superstition. [Text Box 1] Then the Scientific Revolution occurred in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, followed by the Enlightenment of the eighteenth, bringing a greater degree of rationalism and scientific rigour to European belief systems. In the process, belief in the saints and their miraculous powers diminished across Europe, though not entirely. In the vineyards of France or Serbia or Bulgaria today, one will still find the occasional offering being made to St Martin or St Tryphon.

Conclusion – The Decline of the Patron Saints of Wine

Not a lot is remembered today about the patron saints of wine. Across much of the historically Christian world St Tryphon of Campsada or St Urban of Langres are not exactly what one would call household names. But in times gone by the cult of the saints was an immensely significant aspect of Christianity. Devised consciously as a substitute for the local cults of the Greek and Roman gods, the Christian saints quickly became worshipped in different regions and by different groups, much as seafarers had once worshipped Neptune, the Roman god of the sea, and soldiers, Ares, the Roman god of war.

In the medieval world, where viticulture and wine production were omnipresent in countries like France, Spain and Italy, it is no surprise that many of the saints emerged as patron saints of the grape harvest and viticulture more generally. And these patterns had a long life. While the Protestant Reformation might have served to severely damage the cult of the saints across Europe, residual traces of it are still seen today.

Text Box 1 – The Protestant Reformation and the Cult of the Saints 

It wasn’t all smooth sailing for the cult of the saints. Beginning in the fourteenth century church reformers like John Wycliffe in England and then Jan Hus in Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic began to criticise the superstition and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. One core part of their arguments was that there was no doctrinal basis in the gospels or other foundational elements of Christianity for the cult of the saints. Yet their calls for the abolishing of these superstitious elements of Christian worship remained confined to their localities. That is until the Protestant Reformation of the early sixteenth century was able to take advantage of the new technology of print. As the Reformation exploded across Europe, reformers from Luther and Martin Bucer in Germany to Huldrych Zwingli and Jean Calvin in Switzerland critiqued the cult of the saints, declaring it to be irreligious. In turn the Counter Reformation which was launched by the Roman Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in the middle of the sixteenth century also began to place less emphasis on the cult of the saints. Hence, although it remains a part of Christian worship down to the present day, the cult of the saints declined in importance from the sixteenth century onwards.[14]

Further Reading:

Robert Bartlett, Why can the dead do such great things? Saints and worshippers from the Martyrs to the Reformation (Princeton, 2013).

Lester K. Little, Indispensable immigrants: The wine porters of Northern Italy and their saint, 1200–1800 (Manchester, 2014).

James Maynard, ‘Saint Martin of Tours’, The Sewanee Review, Vol. 14, No. 2 (April, 1906), pp. 219–235.

Assen Nicoloff, Bulgarian Folklore, Folk Beliefs, Customs, Folksongs, Personal Names (Sofia, 1975).

Steven Pfaff, ‘The true citizens of the city of God: the cult of saints, the Catholic social order, and the urban Reformation in Germany’, in Theory and Society, Vol. 42, No. 2 (March, 2013), pp. 189–218.

Michael Walsh, A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West (London, 2007).

Basil Watkins, The Book of Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary (London, 2015).

On this Day

14 February 250 – On in this day in 250 AD St Tryphon of Campsada is believed to have been killed during the Decian persecution of Christians. A native of Phrygia in modern-day western Turkey, Tryphon became famous as a Christian healer in Anatolia and north into the Balkans around Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania. He did not accept any payment or gifts for his work and as such is revered as one of the Holy Unmercenary saints. In 250 he was arrested, tortured and beheaded with a sword. He has been revered as a patron saint of wine ever since owing to belief in a miracle which he performed in which he fended off a plague of locusts from the vineyards of grape farmers in the Balkans. His position as a patron saint of viticulturists was recognised by the Greek Orthodox Church, in which he is typically presented with a vine and scythe in his hands. Belief in his role as a wine saint remains strong in Bulgaria and Serbia today, where farmers still visit their vineyards on St Tryphon’s Day to prune the vines and sprinkle wine on them.[15]

10 August 258 – On this day in 258 AD St Lawrence of Rome was killed in the Eternal City as part of the persecution of Christians ordered by Emperor Valerian. Lawrence was one of the seven deacons of Rome, a man in his mid-thirties at the time and a close ally of Pope Sixtus II. He was arrested and charged with adherence to Christianity on the orders of Valerian in 258 AD. Lawrence was subsequently tortured to death by being roasted over a gridiron, an ordeal during which he is alleged to have taunted his tormentors to turn him over to cook him on the other side. This story, which is surely apocryphal, is the reason why Lawrence became associated with cooks, food production and of course wine. Fortuitously, St Lawrence’s Day corresponds exactly with the traditional beginning of the grape harvest in France and so St Lawrence became a major wine saint there in medieval times.[16]

23 January 390 – On this day in 390 St Urban of Langres is believed to have died in north-eastern France. Urban had been consecrated as Bishop of Langres in north-eastern France in 374 AD. While serving there he faced opposition from the local Germanic warlords who were overrunning the Western Roman Empire at the time and many of which were still Pagans. During one of these periods of hostility, Urban hid in a local vineyard. There he converted many of the local viticulturists and in subsequent years he became keenly associated with the wine-makers of north-eastern France. Following his death he was acknowledged as a saint and also became recognised as a patron saint of wine-makers and viticulturists. In medieval times he was keenly believed in by wine-producers in the Burgundy region and other wine-makers in Champagne and other famous wine districts. His feast day is typically celebrated on the 23rd of January in Langres itself, though elsewhere St Urban’s day is marked on the 2nd of April.[17]

3 June 1115 – On this day in 1115 St Morand of Cluny died in his native Germany. Morand hailed from a noble family whose origins lay around Worms, but as a young man he undertook the pilgrimage to Compostela in Spain before heading for the Abbey of Cluny in the Loire Valley in eastern France. After many years studying and praying there at the most powerful monastic house in medieval Europe, he left to return to Germany where he founded his own abbey at Altkirch in lower Alsace (which was then considered part of Germany) at the request of Count Frederick Pferz of Alsace. Morand became famed for his alleged miracles and subsequently beatified. He also became a patron saint of viticulturists or wine saint owing to a story in which Morand apparently tried to emulate Jesus’s Lenten fast by subsisting on nothing more than a bunch of grapes for 40 days and nights.[18]

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References

 

  1. Arthur Harold Weston, ‘December 25th, Christmas Day’, in The Classical Outlook, Vol. 20, No. 3 (December, 1942), pp. 25–27; https://www.worldhistory.org/Saturnalia/ [accessed 16/03/23].
  2.  M. Vannucci, ‘The origin of the cult of Demeter: The story of hexaploid wheat’, in Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 79, No. 1/4 (1998), pp. 83–114. 
  3.  J. B. Rives, ‘The Decree of Decius and the Religion of Empire’, in The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 89 (1999), pp. 135–154; W. H. C. Frend, ‘Persecutions: Genesis and Legacy’, in Margaret Mitchell and Frances Young (eds.), The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume I: Origins to Constantine (New York, 2006), pp. 503–523.
  4.  Donald Attwater, ‘The Early Martyrs’, in Life of the Spirit, Vol. 11, No. 130 (April, 1957), pp. 44 –454. 
  5.  http://www.vinopedia.rs/en/post/foto-prica-dan-svetog-trifuna-u-vinogradima-srbije-14022019 [accessed 12/3/23]; https://3seaseurope.com/saint-tryphon-god-of-wine-bulgaria-wine-industry/ [accessed 12/3/23]; https://mythologymatters.wordpress.com/2020/02/12/the-mythology-of-wine-vi-celebrating-st-tryphon-on-february-14/ [accessed 12/3/23]; Assen Nicoloff, Bulgarian Folklore, Folk Beliefs, Customs, Folksongs, Personal Names (Sofia, 1975).
  6.  http://www.saintlawrencewr.org/about-saint-lawrence-the-martyr.html [accessed 12/3/2023]; ‘St Lawrence’, in Michael Walsh, A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West (London, 2007). 
  7.  ‘St Vincent’ in Basil Watkins, The Book of Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary (London, 2015); https://www.chablis-wines.com/discover/bourgogne-traditions/la-saint-vincent-tournante/la-saint-vincent-tournante,1810,7646.html? [accessed 15/3/23]; https://worldoffinewine.com/news-features/st-vincent-patron-saint-wine [accessed 15/3/23]. 
  8.  https://anastpaul.com/2021/04/02/saint-of-the-day-2-april-saint-urban-of-langres-c-327-c-390/ [12/3/23]; https://glossary.wein.plus/urban [12/3/23]. 
  9.  James Maynard, ‘Saint Martin of Tours’, The Sewanee Review, Vol. 14, No. 2 (April, 1906), pp. 219–235. 
  10.  https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=5166 [accessed 12/3/2023]; https://catholic.net/op/articles/2530/cat/1205/st-morand-of-cluny.html [accessed 12/3/2023]. 
  11.  https://winetripping.wordpress.com/2015/02/13/saint-bibiana-the-patron-saint-of-hangovers/ [accessed 14/3/23]. 
  12.  https://www.ewtn.com/catholicism/library/saint-monica-widow-5683 [accessed 14/3/23]. 
  13.  Lester K. Little, Indispensable immigrants: The wine porters of Northern Italy and their saint, 1200–1800 (Manchester, 2014); https://english.radio.cz/st-martins-wine-what-it-why-do-people-drink-it-and-where-can-you-get-it-8766762 [accessed 14/3/23]; https://slovenia.si/art-and-cultural-heritage/martinovanje-the-feast-of-saint-martin/ [accessed 14/3/23]; ‘St Martin’, in Basil Watkins, The Book of Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary (London, 2015).
  14.  Carol Piper Heming, Protestants and the Cult of the Saints in German-Speaking Europe, 1517–1531 (Kirksville, Missouri, 2003); Steven Pfaff, ‘The true citizens of the city of God: the cult of saints, the Catholic social order, and the urban Reformation in Germany’, in Theory and Society, Vol. 42, No. 2 (March, 2013), pp. 189–218. 
  15.  http://www.vinopedia.rs/en/post/foto-prica-dan-svetog-trifuna-u-vinogradima-srbije-14022019 [accessed 12/3/23]; https://3seaseurope.com/saint-tryphon-god-of-wine-bulgaria-wine-industry/ [accessed 12/3/23]; https://mythologymatters.wordpress.com/2020/02/12/the-mythology-of-wine-vi-celebrating-st-tryphon-on-february-14/ [accessed 12/3/23]. 
  16.  http://www.saintlawrencewr.org/about-saint-lawrence-the-martyr.html [accessed 12/3/2023]. 
  17.  https://anastpaul.com/2021/04/02/saint-of-the-day-2-april-saint-urban-of-langres-c-327-c-390/ [12/3/23]; https://glossary.wein.plus/urban [12/3/23]. 
  18.  https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=5166 [accessed 12/3/2023]; https://catholic.net/op/articles/2530/cat/1205/st-morand-of-cluny.html [accessed 12/3/2023]. 

 

Categories: This Day in Wine History | ArticlesBy Published On: April 7, 2023Last Updated: February 29, 2024

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