January 16, 929: On this day, the Caliphate of Cordoba, a Muslim state that existed in Spain, was established. The Umayyad dynasty ruled the Islamic state known as the Caliphate of Cordoba, sometimes referred to as the Cordoban Caliphate. Its capital was Cordoba, and its domain included Iberia and parts of North Africa. In Islamic arts and crafts, floral and plant patterns frequently appear. The most typical was the grapevine. The Andalusian economy depended heavily on grapes during the Caliphate of Cordoba, which has connections to the current districts of Portugal. Their picture was even minted on their coins. They can be seen on many dirham coins from Al-Andalus (Cordoba), Madinat al-Zahra, Al-Hakem II’s (350–366 AH/AD 961–976), and Hisham II’s reign.

January 16, 1919: US Congress ratified the 18th Amendment, which prohibited the transportation, production, and sale of intoxicating drinks, including wines. The amendment was proposed during December of 1917 and over a year later Prohibition was cemented into American law. Unlawful wine sales began in people’s homes as customers placed orders for illegally made wine. Even though many farmers replanted their vineyards with fruit trees such as prunes, pears, and peaches, they kept a small section of their property aside for growing grapes, selling the products through code names.

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