Almost every wine enthusiast has probably heard of the little insect. But few people understand what phylloxera is or how it managed to wipe out almost the entire European viticulture industry. The life cycle of phylloxera, which ranges in size from 0.28 to 1.35 millimeters, is extremely complex. Simply put, phylloxera feeds first on the leaves of the vines during the reproductive phase and then on the vines’ underground roots. The leaf infestation is not fatal to the plant, but the root damage ensures that the plant will eventually be unable to absorb water and nutrients. As a result, the vine perishes. The louse could never carry out this destructive work in its native North America because the vines there are resistant to the small animal. They have evolved the ability to close phylloxera puncture sites at the roots with cork tissue before major damage occurs. This explains why phylloxera went unnoticed in North America at first. Who would have thought that the European grapevine species Vitis Vinifera lacked this critical defense mechanism? Worse, unlike in the United States, where many different Vitis species are native, the vast majority of which are resistant to phylloxera, Vitis Vinifera was almost exclusively common in Europe.