Introduction 

The nineteenth century in Britain is broadly defined as the Victorian era, such was the length of the reign of Queen Victoria and the superpower status of Britain globally at the time. But this was not just a period marked by the queen’s time on the throne and the country’s pre-eminent position politically and colonially, for the Victorian era was one with a distinct literary culture, social organisation and cultural mores. Here we examine the position of wine within Victorian culture.  

The Victorian Age

The Victorian age is broadly that which existed from 1837 when Queen Victoria ascended as ruler of Britain at the age of 18. She would reign for sixty-three and a half years, making her the longest reigning monarch of the country in history until that record was breached by the recently deceased Queen Elizabeth II. Her death in January 1901 just as a new century was being ushered in lent a note of finality to the nineteenth century in Britain and ensured that Victoria’s name is keenly associated with the entire period. [Text Box 1]

The Victorian era was characterised by a precise set of circumstances. Britain was the world’s pre-eminent power at the time, the sun never setting on its vast empire, which at one time or another included New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, Burma, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Rhodesia, Canada and numerous islands in the Caribbean. The Royal Navy ruled the waves and such was its power that when slavery was abolished by Britain in 1833 its fleet was able to begin coercing the whole world into accepting this new dispensation in the years that followed. [1]

Exterior of Kensington Palace with statue of Queen Victoria

Exterior of Kensington Palace with statue of Queen Victoria

At home Victoria’s reign was one in which Britain became the workshop of the world. The Industrial Revolution had begun here in the 1770s and had gathered steam until Britain was the world’s economic powerhouse by the time of the new queen’s accession. Railways began to criss-cross the country and enormous new cities emerged in places like Birmingham and Sheffield which had been little more than large villages in the seventeenth century. 

Furthermore, every year seemed to bring a wide range of technological breakthroughs. These included everything from John Fisher’s development of the first modern sewing machine in 1844 to John Philip Holland’s launching of the first working submarine prototype in 1878.[2] But progress came with a heavy price. Crammed into appalling tenements in cities like Manchester and Newcastle, the industrial working class lived brutal lives, working upwards of 80 hours a week under poor conditions, often in mines and factories where severe injuries were common. 

In an age prior to the advent of effective medicine and treatment for all manner of maladies, many turned to alcohol for its painkilling qualities and to cushion themselves psychologically from the blunt realities of their lives, straitened circumstances and conditions which were well captured in the writings of Charles Dickens. As the great author himself wrote, in a phrase which was meant to describe the French Revolution, but might just as easily have been used to characterise the Victorian era.

“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.”

Changing Attitudes to Alcohol in the Nineteenth Century 

Attitudes towards wine and alcohol in general were shifting during this complex era of British life. On the one hand this was a period in which temperance and even complete abstinence from alcohol were becoming more popular in Protestant countries whose heritage lay in northern Europe, specifically Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland and the lands they had colonised to the west in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Canada and the United States. Eventually nearly all of these countries would implement a blanket prohibition on the sale and supply of alcohol in the early twentieth century, experiments which broadly failed. [3]

Unlike the US, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, Britain did not impose a prohibition on alcohol. But there was a growing belief amongst the upper and middle classes that alcohol should be consumed in moderation. This fed into class perceptions of different types of alcohol. Wine was increasingly viewed as something which was consumed in more civilized social settings, establishing social pretensions surrounding it which would persist long into the twentieth century. Much of this was also the residual impact of eighteenth-century ideas about French culture being the personification of civility in Europe. 

The converse of this was that beer and certain kinds of spirits were increasingly frowned upon as being symptomatic of reckless alcohol consumption or getting drunk for the sake of getting drunk. Wine, brandy, sherry, champagne and port were in. Beer, gin and rum were out. A clear indication of this was seen in the changing rationing system for mariners in the British Royal Navy. For decades rum and beer had been the standard alcohol rations. In the course of the nineteenth century wine and brandy were increasingly issued to ships with arguments about how they were more ‘medicinal’ that their foamier and molasses-infused brethren. [4]

Despite such efforts to stigmatise beer and certain spirits, while lionising wine, brandy, sherry and port, there was still a great taste for the former amongst the industrial working poor for whom such alcoholic beverages were more affordable. Moreover, owing to the gruelling nature of their work, excessive alcohol consumption was widespread. A night’s drinking in the pubs of Manchester or Sheffield’s tenements would have been a rowdy affair.

The general spirit of alcohol consumption was probably most accurately attested to by George Dobson, a British Army surgeon major, in 1883 when he advised that “continued labour, such as that of the sportsman and traveller, cannot be maintained for any length of time unassisted by the occasional and judicious use of alcohol.”[5]

How Much Did the Victorians Drink? 

Of course the foregoing has raised many contradictions. Why were temperance movements growing at a time when people seemed to be drinking more than ever? This was an issue which would arise in many countries which experimented with prohibition. The experience of the 1920s in the United States made it clear exactly how impractical it was to try to implement a ban on alcohol. Prohibition and even severe temperance were always the preserve of a small, but powerful minority within societies like Britain, America and Canada, specifically church leaders, women’s movements and sections of the medical profession and other learned societies. But the majority were always opposed to such measures. [6]

So if the veil of proposed prohibition was illusory, then how much were Britons in Victoria’s time actually drinking? The answer was an awful lot. People in the second half of the nineteenth century tended to consume some amount of alcohol every day, while for a significant chunk of the population alcohol was a perennial presence at breakfast, lunch and dinner and for nightcaps in the evening. Beer and spirits were the overwhelming favourites, accounting for nearly 90% of all alcohol consumed in the country. Wine, despite efforts by the upper and middle classes to promote it, and even by successive governments to encourage importation of it, remained the tipple of choice for the minority. [7]

This is the first period in history in which we might view excessive alcohol consumption as a social issue. The nineteenth century was the first time that purified drinking water started to become widely available and there was a general awareness that if one didn’t trust the public water system, they could remove pollutants from it by boiling it and making it into tea or coffee. Nevertheless, outbreaks of cholera, the pandemic par excellence of the nineteenth century, created new concerns about drinking plain old water. It was also a time in which medical practitioners, while they might promote a certain amount of indulgence for one’s health, were certainly conscious that the man who drank a half a bottle of whiskey and eight pints of beer a day was not doing himself any favours health-wise. [8]

There was also a growing awareness of the social ills attendant on excessive drunkenness, from riots and public disorder to domestic violence. Much of the temperance movement was driven by wives exhausted by the financial fecklessness of their husbands or their physical abuse. At the same time, excessive drinking was fuelled by the living conditions of the urban poor. It is shocking to modern eyes that in 1847 workers celebrated the passage of the Factories Act in Britain, one which limited the working day to ten hours, six days a week. It was not long before that that legislation had first prohibited industrialists from employing children under the age of 10 years in coal mines. Given all of this, it is not difficult to see why alcohol consumption remained comparatively high in Victorian times, despite the growing awareness of the deleterious effects of excessive consumption on a person’s health. [9]

Wine and Port in the Work of Anthony Trollope

Wine, fortified beverages and other alcoholic drinks were central to the writings of a great many of the foremost writers of the day. One such was Anthony Trollope, whose series of novels called the Chronicles of Barsetshire explored the religious, social and cultural mores of Victorian society through the goings-on in the fictional county of Barsetshire. Wine and fortified wine features significantly in these works. For instance, in the first of the six Barsetshire novels, The Warden, published in 1855, the dying character of the Bishop Grantly is sustained for a little while longer in life by drinking a daily quotient of Madeira, emphasising the links in the Victorian mind between the consumption of fortified wines and good health. This is a clear example of Trollope’s discussion of wine in his work, but more oblique is his use of wine as a symbol which is used to criticise the clergy and with it the evangelical movement within Britain and Ireland at his time of writing. 

Trollope’s discussion of wine and use of it in his work was not incongruous, for he was a considerable imbiber himself. Writing his autobiography in the early 1880s he described his pride in his cellar. His particular favourite was Claret. In 1882, the year he died at 67 years of age, Trollope is believed to have consumed nearly 300 bottles of the fine 1874 vintage of Château Léoville, costing a princely sum of six shillings a piece, as well as a similar volume of the slightly cheaper Château Beycheville. Who knows if he was sharing, but that is nearly two bottles a day! [10]

A Victorian Wine Connoisseur: Charles Dickens

Victorian Wine Connoisseur: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) in his study at Gad's Hill Place.

Victorian Wine Connoisseur: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) in his study at Gad’s Hill Place.

Trollope was not alone in being a prominent Victorian writer who combined incorporating wine and fortified wines into his writings with his own penchant for consuming a bottle or two a day himself. Such was also the case with Charles Dickens. Dickens was the acclaimed author of dozens of books, the most famous including canonical works of the nineteenth century such as David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol, Hard Times, A Tale of Two Cities and Great Expectations. He was the foremost chronicler of the squalor of Victorian society and the vast clashes between those who had profited from industrialisation and empire, and those who suffered from these twin processes. [11]

Wine, fortified wine and spirits pervade Dickens’s work. It has been opined, for instance, that before the Whitnail & I drinking game came along in the late 1980s, one might just as well have played The Pickwick Papers drinking game, such is the ubiquity of alcohol in Dickens’s debut novel. Mulled wine is central to the closing scenes of A Christmas Carol when Scrooge and his long suffering employee, Bob Cratchit, enjoy a mug of Smoking Bishop together. Dickens’s 1844 novel, Martin Chuzzlewit, has the distinction of being one of the first literary accounts to introduce information on the Sherry Cobbler to a British audience, the sherry cocktail only having been recently devised in the United States. [12]

As his work took on a harder social edge and darker notes in years to come, Dickens began to use wine for darker symbolic meanings. Thus, we find wine spilling all over the streets of Paris during the early days of the French Revolution, as depicted in A Tale of Two Cities. Here it acts as an ominous portent of the Terror and the violence to come under the Committee for the Public Safety and Robespierre’s effusive resort to the guillotine in the early 1790s.

In David Copperfield the eponymous character is removed from school to work washing bottles at Murdstone’s wine warehouse, a period which Copperfield describes as a bleak enough period to constitute “the secret agony of my soul.”[13]

Much of this was autobiographical and the scene from Copperfield reflects Dickens’s own time working in a blacking factory during his youth. We should not be surprised then to discover that wine’s perennial presence in Dickens’s books was reflected in its attendant centrality to his own life. Charles was a man who liked wine, so much so that he kept a very well-stocked cellar and spent approximately £15,000 a year replenishing it, a sum equivalent to about two million dollars annually in today’s money. Consequently, while Hard Times and other works of his might have admonished readers to avoid excessive drinking, there is no denying that the greatest literary celebrity of the 1850s and 1860s was himself a heavy drinker. He was especially partial to Italian wine, having large consignments of the same shipped directly to him in Britain from the Mediterranean peninsula, and of course the Bordeaux wine which was the staple of the British wine market in the nineteenth century. 

Whether Dickens’s habits contributed to his premature death or not is debateable. Those who examine the vast amount of written work which he published and view the aged man in photographs of him from his last years might be surprised to learn that Dickens was only 58 years old when he succumbed in 1870 after five years of near continuous ill health. Death, when it came, was from a stroke, but the exact nature of his illness from 1865 onwards remains unclear. We do know, though, that it didn’t dent his belief in the benefits of alcohol. In 1868, during his final tour of the United States, he recounted how his daily regimen consisted of two spoons of rum first thing in the morning, a sherry cobbler at midday, a pint of champagne with dinner and a glass of sherry beaten up with an egg as a nightcap. Presumably wine was such a constant that he didn’t even mention it. As such, in both his written life and his lived life, wine and its derivatives were constants for Dickens.[14]

Alcohol and the Victorian Medical Profession 

If there was a broad unwillingness to accept the views of the abolitionists and advocates of temperance in nineteenth-century Britain when it came to alcohol, then one of the main reasons was owing to the prevailing belief in the medical utility of wine, something which certainly arose from time to time in the writings of Trollope, Dickens and others. This was manifold. Firstly, alcohol, as an anaesthetic, was widely used for pain relief in an age prior to effective alternative medicine. Paracetamol was not first used clinically until 1893 and aspirin was only first synthesised in 1897, while the world would have to wait until the middle of the twentieth century for ibuprofen to become available. In this scenario alcohol was used for everything from sprains and tooth aches to broken bones and post-surgery healing. Early in the Victorian era it was also the only effective substance for use prior to surgery, but the discovery of both ether and cocaine as substances which could be used for anaesthesia revolutionised surgery from mid-century onwards. [15]

Victorian Era: A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Book

Victoria Era: Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Book

More broadly, there was still a widespread belief that a certain amount of alcohol consumption was simply good for a person in general at this time. This was promoted by many within the medical field. A prominent promoter of wine in this respect was Francis Anstie, a Victorian doctor who in 1877 published a book entitled On the Uses of Wine in Health and Disease. 

Anstie shared the views of many within the medical community at the time that excessive alcohol use was very harmful and should be avoided. But he was a firm promoter of wine and its alleged health benefits for combating a wide range of maladies. For general health he prescribed drinking a bottle of light wine a day, even going so far as to recommend Claret, of which he noted that a decent bottle could be obtained in Victorian London for just one shilling. These, he noted, could also be watered down effectively. Anstie was also in favour of Beaune wines from Burgundy as a good restorative for those whose appetites had declined. 

Other wines or fortified wines were prescribed by the good doctor for all manner of maladies. Port was effective for combating heart issues and cerebral exhaustion according to Anstie, while he and a number of other physicians at Westminster Hospital claimed to have had good results treating patients with sherry, such that they mistakenly believed this possessed some medicinal quality beyond its mere alcohol content. Thus, Anstie’s belief in these fortified wines extended further to prescribing significant quantities of them to older patients to aid in everything from digestion to sleeping patterns. His was just one such view amongst Victorian medical practitioners concerning the benefits of wine for one’s health, albeit one of the more stringent advocates in this regard. [16]

Conclusion

In many ways the attitude of the Victorian medical establishment towards alcohol was broadly symptomatic of British society’s approach on the whole to booze during the long reign of Queen Victoria. This was a society which was strangely developing a more cautious approach towards alcohol, while at the same time, quite paradoxically wine, beer and spirits flowed freely everywhere. The medical establishment realised excessive alcohol consumption was dangerous, but still promoted its use for everything from anaesthesia and pain relief to use as a digestive aid and to regulate sleeping patterns. Temperance movements called for very moderate alcohol consumption or none at all, while society at large was absolutely saturated in alcohol, the result of a broad spectrum of social problems which characterised Victorian society. And writers like Dickens could at once warn of the dangers of excessive drinking, while personally maintaining the kind of steady intake of wine, sherry and champagne which would characterise an individual as a functional alcoholic today. Such were the ambiguities of alcohol consumption in Victorian times. 

Text Box 1 – Queen Victoria and Wine 

Queen Victoria herself was no advocate of abstinence from alcohol, referring to the temperance movement as a ‘pernicious heresy’. Then again, she was hardly a connoisseur by any stretch of the imagination. Her own tipple was very simple and consisted of half a tumbler of red wine mixed with whiskey, resulting in a drink which one modern blogger has very adeptly described as tasting “somewhere between thin gravy, treacle and a three-day-old bonfire, with a real chesty punch, like being hit in the sternum with a bag of sand.” Perhaps it was Victoria’s peculiar living arrangements which led to her engaging in such torrid choices in alcoholic beverage. In March 1861 her mother died, followed just over a half a year later by her husband Albert. Victoria never recovered, largely becoming a recluse in her many royal palaces. Thus, the woman who the age which defined Britain’s pinnacle of empire was named after, was a curiously absent figure from the public life of that same nation for much of the 1860s, 1870s, 1880s and 1890s. From the 1880s she suffered from rheumatism following a fall down a set of stairs which she never fully recovered from. No doubt her awful concoction of red wine and whiskey eased many a pain in the evenings.[17]

Further Reading:

Edward Armston-Sheret, ‘Why is alcohol thought to be relaxing? Victorian and Edwardian explorers might hold the clue’, The Conversation, 17 January 2022. 

Edward Armston-Sheret and Kim Walker, ‘Is alcohol a tropical medicine? Scientific understandings of climate, stimulants and bodies in Victorian and Edwardian tropical travel’, in The British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 54 (2021), pp. 465–484. 

John Danza, ‘The 1870 Cellar of Charles Dickens’, Wine, Food and Friends, Vol. 101 (Spring, 2012). 

Dora Davies-Evitt, ‘“Heavy Drinker” Charles Dickens had a taste for fine Italian wine’, Tatler, 24 October 2022. 

John Greenaway, Drink and British Politics since 1830 (London, 2003). 

Thora Hands, Drinking in Victorian & Edwardian Britain: Beyond the Spectre of the Drunkard (London, 2018). 

Cheryl L. Krasnick, ‘“Because there is pain”: Alcoholism, temperance and the Victorian physician’, in Canadian Bulletin of Medical History (1985), pp. 1–22. 

Robert James Merrett, ‘Port and Claret: The Politics of Wine in Trollope’s Barsetshire Novels’, in Mosaic: An Interdisciplinary Critical Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3/4: Diet and Discourse: Eating, Drinking and Literature (Summer/Fall, 1991), pp. 107–125.

On this Day

9 June 1870 – On in this day in 1870 the great British writer Charles Dickens died at Higham in Kent. He was just 58 years of age, a fact which is often overlooked given his prodigious literary output during his lifetime. Wine, sherry, champagne and other alcohol were prominent throughout Dickens’s work. They are ubiquitous in his first novel, The Pickwick Papers. Dickens’s 1844 novel, Martin Chuzzlewit, has the distinction of being one of the first literary accounts to introduce information on the Sherry Cobbler to a British audience, the sherry cocktail only having been recently devised in the United States. In A Tale of Two Cities spilled wine on the streets of Paris is used as a portent of the bloodshed to follow in the French Revolution, while Hard Times warns the reader of the danger of excessive drinking. Yet Dickens was no angel himself in the latter regard. A noted wine drinker who spent the modern equivalent of two million dollars a year on wine, he was known to consume a pint of champagne with dinner and was very partial to sherry and Italian reds. Life imitated art to a large extent in the case of the Victorian era’s pre-eminent literary star.[18]

12 September 1874 – On this day in 1874 Francis Edmund Anstie died in England. Anstie is not a household name today, but he is an important figure in the history of nineteenth-century medicine. He was the first editor of the medical journal The Practitioner, which is still being published as a significant contribution to the field a century and a half later. In his own day, though, he was most well-known for his advocacy of the health benefits of wine and its fortified offspring such as port and sherry. Anstie published his views in numerous journals at the time and eventually compiled them into his book, On the Uses of Wine in Health and Disease, published in 1877. In this he argued that a bottle of wine every day was conducive towards general good health, while port and sherry were promoted by him to treat everything from heart issues to cerebral exhaustion. He was particularly keen to stress the benefits of sherry for older patients to promote good digestion and regular sleep patterns. His was just one such view amongst Victorian medical practitioners concerning the benefits of wine for one’s health, albeit he was one of the more stringent advocates in this regard. [19]

6 December 1882 – On this day in 1882 the Victorian author, Anthony Trollope, died in London. In the course of a prolific writing life he authored nearly fifty books, the most famous of which are the six books which comprise the Chronicles of Barsetshire in which Trollope explored the religious, social and cultural mores of Victorian society through the goings-on in the fictional county of Barsetshire. Wine featured prominently in his work. For instance, in the first of the six Barsetshire novels, The Warden, the dying character of the Bishop Grantly is sustained for a little while longer in life by drinking a daily quotient of Madeira, emphasising the links in the Victorian mind between the consumption of fortified wines and good health. Elsewhere in his work he used wine as a symbol which is used to criticise the clergy and with it the evangelical movement within Britain and Ireland. Trollope was a considerable imbiber himself. Writing his autobiography in the early 1880s he described his pride in his cellar. His particular favourite was Claret. In 1882, the year he died at 67 years of age, Trollope is believed to have consumed nearly 300 bottles of the fine 1874 vintage of Château Léoville, as well as a similar volume of Château Beycheville.[20]

Want to read more? Try these books!

Glass Roses- A Victorian Fairytale Scoff- A History of Food and Class in Britain

References

  1.  Alleyne Ireland, ‘The Victorian Era of British Expansion’, in The North American Review, Vol. 172, No. 533 (April, 1901), pp. 560–572. 
  2.  Francis T. Evans, ‘Roads, Railways, and Canals: Technical Choices in 19th-Century Britain’, in Technology and Culture, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Jan., 1981), pp. 1–34; Raphael Samuel, ‘Workshop of the World: Steam Power and Hand Technology in Mid-Victorian Britain’, in History Workshop, No. 3 (Spring, 1977), pp. 6–72.
  3.  K. Gunnar Gotestam and Ola Rostum, ‘Alcohol Control Policy in the Nordic Countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland)’, in Peter M. Miller and Ted D. Nirenberg (eds), Prevention of Alcohol Abuse (New York, 1984), pp. 213–225; James R. Rohrer, ‘The Origins of the Temperance Movement’, in Journal of American Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2 (August, 1990), pp. 228–235.
  4.  Charles Ludington, The Politics of Wine in Britain: A New Cultural History (Basingstoke, 2013). 
  5.  Edward Armston-Sheret, ‘Why is alcohol thought to be relaxing? Victorian and Edwardian explorers might hold the clue’, The Conversation, 17 January 2022. 
  6.  Lilian Lewis Shiman, The Crusade Against Drink in Victorian England (London, 1988).  
  7.  John Greenaway, Drink and British Politics since 1830 (London, 2003), chapter 1. 
  8.  Projit Bihari Mukharji, ‘The “Cholera Cloud” in the Nineteenth-Century “British World”’, in Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 86, No. 3 (2012), pp. 303–332.
  9.  A. E. Peacock, ‘The Successful Prosecution of the Factory Acts, 1833–55’, in Economic History Review, Vol. 37, No. 2 (May, 1984), pp. 197–210. 
  10.  https://wineaswas.com/2013/08/08/a-bottle-of-claret-a-day-a-victorian-doctors-view-of-health/ [accessed 2/3/23]; Robert James Merrett, ‘Port and Claret: The Politics of Wine in Trollope’s Barsetshire Novels’, in Mosaic: An Interdisciplinary Critical Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3/4: Diet and Discourse: Eating, Drinking and Literature (Summer/Fall, 1991), pp. 107–125; N. John Hall, ‘Trollope, Anthony’, in Brian Harrison and H. C. G. Matthew (eds.), The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 Vols. (Oxford, 2004).
  11.  Peter Ackroyd, Dickens (London, 1990). 
  12.  Mathew Gaughan and Julian Hanna, ‘Charles Dickens (1812–1870)’, Wine & Words, 13 October 2017. 
  13.  https://www.victorianweb.org/victorian//art/illustration/groome/20.html [accessed 3/3/2023]. 
  14.  John Danza, ‘The 1870 Cellar of Charles Dickens’, Wine, Food and Friends, Vol. 101 (Spring, 2012); Dora Davies-Evitt, ‘“Heavy Drinker” Charles Dickens had a taste for fine Italian wine’, Tatler, 24 October 2022; Mathew Gaughan and Julian Hanna, ‘Charles Dickens (1812–1870)’, Wine & Words, 13 October 2017.
  15.  J. D. Whitby, ‘Alcohol in anaesthesia and surgical resuscitation’, in Anaesthesia, Vol. 35, No. 5 (May, 1980), pp. 502–505; C. Ball and R. N. Westhorpe, ‘The History of Simple Analgesics’, in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Vol. 39, No. 3 (2011), p. 331; Cheryl L. Krasnick, ‘“Because there is pain”: Alcoholism, temperance and the Victorian physician’, in Canadian Bulletin of Medical History (1985), pp. 1–22.  
  16.  https://wineaswas.com/2013/08/08/a-bottle-of-claret-a-day-a-victorian-doctors-view-of-health/ [accessed 2/3/23]; Francis Antsie, On the Uses of Wine in Health and Disease (London, 1877); M. P. Earles, ‘Anstie, Francis Edmund’, in Brian Harrison and H. C. G. Matthew (eds.), The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 Vols. (Oxford, 2004).
  17.  http://sedimentblog.blogspot.com/2012/04/queen-victorias-tipple.html [accessed 2/3/22]; Julia Baird, Victoria, the Queen: An intimate biography of the woman who ruled an empire (New York, 2016); Auslander Munich, ‘Queen Victoria, Empire, and Excess’, in Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, Vol. 6, No. 2: Woman and Nation (Autumn, 1987), pp. 265–281. 
  18.  John Danza, ‘The 1870 Cellar of Charles Dickens’, Wine, Food and Friends, Vol. 101 (Spring, 2012); Dora Davies-Evitt, ‘“Heavy Drinker” Charles Dickens had a taste for fine Italian wine’, Tatler, 24 October 2022; Mathew Gaughan and Julian Hanna, ‘Charles Dickens (1812–1870)’, Wine & Words, 13 October 2017.
  19.  https://wineaswas.com/2013/08/08/a-bottle-of-claret-a-day-a-victorian-doctors-view-of-health/ [accessed 2/3/23]; Francis Antsie, On the Uses of Wine in Health and Disease (London, 1877); M. P. Earles, ‘Anstie, Francis Edmund’, in Brian Harrison and H. C. G. Matthew (eds.), The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 Vols. (Oxford, 2004).
  20.  https://wineaswas.com/2013/08/08/a-bottle-of-claret-a-day-a-victorian-doctors-view-of-health/ [accessed 2/3/23]; Robert James Merrett, ‘Port and Claret: The Politics of Wine in Trollope’s Barsetshire Novels’, in Mosaic: An Interdisciplinary Critical Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3/4: Diet and Discourse: Eating, Drinking and Literature (Summer/Fall, 1991), pp. 107–125; N. John Hall, ‘Trollope, Anthony’, in Brian Harrison and H. C. G. Matthew (eds.), The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 Vols. (Oxford, 2004).
Categories: This Day in Wine History | ArticlesBy Published On: February 29, 2024Last Updated: February 29, 2024

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