Gout, a painful form of arthritis, has been a subject of medical literature for centuries. Its historical association with the affluent and the royal, coupled with its connection to the consumption of wine, has made it a fascinating topic of discussion among historians and scientists alike. This article delves into the intriguing tale of wine, kings, and the so-called “King’s Disease” – gout, exploring the historical and scientific ties that bind them together.

The Historical Connection: Gout and the Aristocracy

Gout, a medical condition that has been recognized since the time of the ancient Egyptians, has a fascinating historical connection with the aristocracy and the indulgence in rich foods and fine wines. This connection is so profound that it led to the coining of the term “disease of kings,” a phrase that encapsulates the prevalence of gout among the wealthy and royal classes.

The Aristocratic Affliction

During the Middle Ages, gout began to be associated with the aristocracy. This was a time when social class dictated access to certain foods and beverages. The wealthy and royal classes had the privilege of indulging in rich foods and fine wines, luxuries that were not readily available to the lower classes. This disparity in dietary habits led to a noticeable pattern – gout was particularly prevalent among the affluent.

This prevalence was not merely a coincidence. The rich foods and fine wines enjoyed by the aristocracy were high in purines, substances that the body metabolizes into uric acid. High levels of uric acid can lead to the development of gout. Thus, the aristocratic lifestyle inadvertently contributed to the high incidence of gout among the upper classes.

King Henry VIII: A Royal Sufferer

One of the most famous sufferers of gout was King Henry VIII of England. Known for his extravagant lifestyle and excessive consumption of wine, his battle with gout was well-documented. The severity of his condition escalated to such an extent that it left him virtually immobile during his later years.

King Henry VIII’s struggle with gout is a testament to the disease’s debilitating nature and its historical association with the consumption of wine. His condition served as a stark reminder to his contemporaries and future generations about the potential consequences of excessive indulgence.

King Henry VIII

Benjamin Franklin: A Founding Father’s Fight

Another notable figure who suffered from gout was Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin wrote extensively about his “gouty companion,” describing in vivid detail the excruciating pain it caused him. His writings provide a first-hand account of the torment of gout and further cement the historical connection between gout, wine, and the affluent.

Franklin’s accounts of his gout attacks are not just historical records; they are also personal narratives that highlight the human experience of living with gout. His writings serve as a reminder that gout is not just a disease of the past, but a condition that continues to affect people today.

Benjamin Franklin

Joseph Siffred Duplessis (French, Carpentras 1725–1802 Versailles)
Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), 1778
Oil on canvas; Oval, 28 1/2 x 23 in. (72.4 x 58.4 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Friedsam Collection, Bequest of Michael Friedsam, 1931 (32.100.132)

The Scientific Connection: Gout and Wine

The link between gout and wine is not merely a historical artifact but also has a firm grounding in science. Gout is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. When these levels become too high, uric acid can form crystals in the joints, leading to severe pain and inflammation.

Certain foods and drinks, including red meat and alcohol, can increase uric acid levels. Wine, particularly red wine, contains a substance known as purine. When consumed, the body metabolizes purine into uric acid. Consequently, excessive consumption of wine can lead to increased uric acid levels and potentially trigger a gout attack.

However, it’s crucial to note that not all wine drinkers will develop gout, and not all gout sufferers are wine drinkers. The development of gout is a complex process that involves a combination of genetic factors, diet, and other lifestyle factors. While wine can contribute to increased uric acid levels, it is just one piece of the puzzle.

Recent scientific studies have shed more light on the relationship between wine and gout. These studies suggest that moderate wine consumption may not significantly increase the risk of gout compared to other alcoholic beverages. However, heavy drinking and binge drinking of any alcohol, including wine, can increase the risk of gout. This finding underscores the importance of moderation in alcohol consumption.


The tale of wine, kings, and gout is a fascinating journey through history and science. While the “disease of kings” is no longer exclusive to the wealthy and royal, the connection between gout and wine remains a topic of interest. It’s a reminder of the importance of moderation and the role lifestyle choices play in our health.

Also read: The Dark Story behind Italy’s Elite Wines

King Henry VIII of England was in power from 1509 to 1547. His efforts to have his marriage to Catherine of Aragon declared null and void are well-known. Obsessed with having a male heir, he had six wives and was known to have beheaded two of them. His lavish lifestyle, including the excessive consumption of wine and food led him to develop gout. Despite having many diseases, he continued his notorious eating and drinking consumption which worsened his health, until his death in 1547 at the age of 55.

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